Diabetes is a complex group of diseases due to various reasons. People with diabetes have high blood sugar, also known as high blood sugar or hyperglycemia.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive system breaks down carbohydrates, sugar, and starch into glucose in many foods, a form of sugar entering the bloodstream. This medical condition develops when the body does not make enough insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively or both.
There are two main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. In the past, type 1 diabetes was called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Who is likely to develop type 1 diabetes? Heredity plays an important role in determining this. The gene is passed from biological parents to the child.
Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes often develops in middle-aged and older people who are overweight or obese. Once upon a time, the rare disease in youth is becoming more common in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of factors. In which insulin resistance is a condition in which the body’s muscles, fat and liver cells do not use insulin effectively.
Physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes: Physical inactivity and obesity are strongly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. People who are genetically susceptible to type 2 diabetes. They are more risk less when these risk factors are present. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.
An imbalance between calorie intake and physical activity can lead to obesity, which causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. Central obesity, in which a person has high fat on the stomach. A major risk factor not only for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but also for heart and blood vessel disease, also known as cardiovascular disease (CVD). This excess belly fat produces hormones and other substances. Which can cause harmful, chronic effects in the body such as damage to blood vessels.
What happens in diabetes
In diabetes, carbohydrate and glucose oxidation is not completely done. The main reason for this is ‘insulin deficiency’. Our pancreas produces a hormone called insulin, due to which glucose reaches all parts of the body properly, both the quantity of glucose in the blood is more than normal and less than normal.
What is insulin resistance
Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body fails to properly use a hormone called insulin. Insulin itself provides glucose inside the cells of our body due to which the process of metabolism produces energy and we are able to work
Those patients with type 2 diabetes who are obese are often insulin resistant. This means that such diabetic patients will need higher amounts of insulin so that their cells can get sufficient amount of sugar. In this way, the long-term effects of insulin resistance caused by obesity increase the risk of diabetes in obese individuals, especially in obese women.
Symptoms of diabetes
- Fatigue quickly
- Lose weight
- More thirsty
- Frequent urination
- Wounds and injuries take longer to heal
Diabetes prevention measures
Check your glucose level and be alert if it is more than 100 before meals and 125 after meals. Keep the HbA1c test done every three months so that the actual level of sugar in your body is known.
1. Eat low calorie food. Completely eliminate the sweet in the meal. Include vegetables, fresh fruits, whole grains, dairy products and sources of omega-3 fats in your diet. Apart from this, fiber should also be consumed.
2. Instead of eating three times a day, eat the same food in six or seven times.
3. Reduce smoking and alcohol consumption, or quit altogether if possible.
4. Do not keep much tension of office work and get enough sleep at night. Low sleep is not good for health. To reduce stress, you should meditate or listen to music etc.
5. Keep health check up regularly and monitor the sugar level daily so that it never exceeds the level. Once the sugar increases, it is very difficult to bring down its level and during this time the increased sugar level keeps leaving its bad effect on the body parts.
6. Take 2-2 kg of wheat and barley and grind it with one kg of gram. Eat chapattis made of this flour in your meal.
7. Diabetes patients should include bitter gourd, fenugreek, drumstick, spinach, turmeric, turnip, brinjal, parwal, gourd, radish, cauliflower, broccoli, tomato, cabbage and leafy vegetables.
8. Include berries, lemon, amla, tomato, papaya, melon, raw guava, orange, seasonal, nutmeg, pear in fruits. Mangoes, bananas, apples, dates and grapes should not be eaten because they are high in sugar.
9. Soak fenugreek seeds at night and it should be eaten on an empty stomach every morning.
10. Include almonds, garlic, onions, sprouted pulses, sprouted peeled gram, sattu and millet, etc. and use potatoes, rice and butter very sparingly.
Obesity control diabetes prevention
Obese people can avoid diabetes by losing 10 to 15 percent weight. Also, if obese persons who suffer from diabetes lose 10 to 15 percent of their body weight, then the dosage of their medicines can be reduced, and in addition to diabetes related complications such as blindness, stroke and heart. The risk of an attack may also be reduced. Therefore, to reduce the risk of diabetes, control of obesity is necessary.
Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulates to such an extent that it can have a negative effect on health. Obesity increases the likelihood of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis and depression.
How does obesity affect the body?
Fat cells in the body make inflammatory molecules called cytokines that cause inflammation in all other cells and tissues. Inflammation in the brain affects memory and may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s. Blood sugar system is affected due to inflammation. Thus, the risk of diabetes increases and the blood vessels and cholesterol are affected thereby increasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
What are the causes of obesity
Genetics – Genetic, behavioral and hormonal effects on body weight can cause obesity.
Unhealthy diet – If you consume more calories than you burn through exercise and normal daily activities, your body collects these extra calories as fat and causes obesity.
Medical conditions – Rare but medical conditions such as Prader – Willi syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome and other diseases can lead to obesity.
How to prevent and control obesity?
Exercise regularly – To prevent weight gain, exercise 150 to 300 minutes of moderate or fast activity every week.
Follow a healthy diet plan – Add low-calorie nutrient-rich foods to your diet such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains, and avoid saturated fats, and make limited use of sweets and alcohol.
Weight monitoring – Monitoring weight every week or month can help small problems become bigger.
Common problems related to obesity
- Type 2 diabetes
- high blood pressure
- heart disease
- Respiratory disorders
- Gall bladder disease
- Gynecological problems
- Penis curvature and sexual health issues
- Anti-alcohol fatty liver disease